How to Design Killer Surveys

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Perhaps the most important element in running a successful survey is also the most overlooked: the cognitive stress load the survey places on respondents. While much is said about proper methods of sampling, delivery, and follow-up, minimizing respondents’ cognitive stress with well-written, well-designed surveys is in fact one of the most effective ways to improve data quality and raise response rates.

Cognitive stress is a term that refers to the level of internal apprehension and anxiety in users of a system (or in this case, respondents to a survey). High cognitive stress among survey respondents undermines the data by clouding it with inaccurate responses made in confusion and error. If that stress load gets too high, respondents are likely to drop out and leave the researcher with no data at all.

So what survey design mistakes are responsible for creating cognitive stress? While they manifest in a variety of ways, mistakes generally fall into one of three broad categories:

  • Fatigue: respondents become mentally exhausted due to length, repetitiveness, or overwhelming complexity
  • Answerability: respondents are unable to provide accurate responses due to insufficient knowledge or recall, unsatisfactory multiple choice options, or an unwillingness to provide an honest answer
  • Clarity: respondents misinterpret or fail to understand the questions, or are misled by poor word choice and question phrasing

All three of these kinds of mistakes make the survey a more frustrating experience for the respondent and lead directly to lower quality data full of inaccuracies. The solution to this problem is a long time coming, and has been developing for the past several years in an entirely different field – user experience design, or UX.

Typically, UX solutions are applied to website and app design, but surveys are just as much a product with a user experience that can be optimized.

Usability testing, a core UX research method, allows designers to see how real people interact with their product and where they become confused, frustrated, or tempted to give up. Applying such research methods to survey design grants the researcher real insights into design flaws before the survey ever goes out, so the spots generating the most cognitive stress can be targeted for rethinking and rewriting.

Recent trends towards crowdsourcing usability testing for easy and scalable research have made such a solution possible, and a parallel development in the UX field – the rise of quantitative usability metrics – offer opportunities for getting an even more thorough, systematic understanding of cognitive stress in survey design.

The Survey Respondent Score has been jointly developed by QuestionPro, TryMyUI, and MeasuringU to measure cognitive stress levels in survey respondents and paint a multi-dimensional portrait of design flaws stemming from fatigue, answerability, and clarity. Based loosely on widely-respected metrics like the System Usability Scale, the SRS is the long-awaited key to understanding the survey field’s most overlooked issue.

Vivek Bhaskaran is the co-founder of IdeaScale.

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About Vivek Bhaskaran

Vivek Bhaskaran is the President and CEO of Survey Analytics.

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